# Thermodynamics (Th)

### Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics can be used to make the number of necessary measurements smaller, or to make the type of measurement easier.

It turns out that volumetric flowrates are far easier to measure than mass or molar flows.How can we make use of this information ?

• Use single - phase thermodynamics to convert from volumetric flows to mass / molar flows
• Determine the density of a mixture of liquids
• Use the ideal gas law to determine P, V, or T of a single component
• Determine the composition of a mixture of ideal gases from their partial pressures or volume fractions
• Use one(or all) of the covered non - ideal equations(SRK, compressibility factor, van der Waals, virial equation) to determine P, V, or T
• Use equations of state for mixtures of gases
• Use equations of state in material balances

When multiple phases are in equilibrium with each other, the problem becomes constrained .Can we use this information, along with Thermodynamics, to further reduce the number of necessary measurements ?

• Sketch a phase diagram and label relevant regions / points(solid, liquid, gas, critical point, etc.)
• Use Gibbs phase rule to determine how much information is necessary to specify the thermodynamic state of a system
• Explain the difference between the Gibbs phase rule and a Degrees - of - freedom analysis
• Perform vapor - liquid equilibrium(VLE) calculations
• Estimate the vapor pressure of liquid components
• Use ideal solution expressions to determine the composition of liquids and their corresponding vapors
• Define and use K values, Raoult 's law, and relative volatility
• Distinguish between when Henry 's Law and Raoult' s Law would be applicable
• Use Txy or Pxy diagrams for non - ideal(and ideal) solutions
• Explain the relationship between y - x, Txy, and Hxy diagrams
• Estimate the composition of liquids in equilibrium with solids
• Estimate the composition of immiscible liquids in equilibrium with each other(using either partition ratios or ternary phase diagrams)