# Course Outline and Outcomes

### Thermodynamic Properties

• Define and articulate some of the critical language and concepts of Thermodynamics
• Distinguish between the universe, system, surroundings, and boundary [Ch 1.1-1.2]
• Define open system, closed system, and isolated system [Ch 1.1-1.2]
• Define adiabatic, isothermal, isobaric, and isochoric processes [Ch 1.1-1.2]
• Distinguish between extensive and intensive thermodynamic properties [Ch 1.3]
• Explain the difference between state and path variables [Ch 1.5]
• Distinguish between equilibrium and steady state [Ch 1.4]
• Define the term phase and explain what it means for phases to be in equilibrium [Ch 1.4]
• Relate properties to phase behavior [Ch 1.6-1.8]
• Relate the measured thermodynamic properties of temperature and pressure to molecular behavior
• Describe phase and chemical reaction equilibrium in terms of dynamic molecular processes
• Apply the state postulate and the Gibbs phase rule to determine the number of required independent properties needed to constrain the state of a system (pure species)
• Identify the phases present on a PT and/or Pv diagram as well as the critical point and triple point
• Describe the difference between the saturation and vapor pressures
• Determine thermodynamic properties using both calculations and tabulated data [Ch 1.6-1.7]
• Read desired thermodynamic properties from steam tables
• Using linear, sometimes double, interpolation to calculate property values from sparse tabular data
• Use equations of state to calculate unknown properties from measured properties

### The First Law of Thermodynamics

• Explain and manipulate the first law [Ch 2.4]
• Write the integral and differential forms of the first law
• Describe the physical meaning of each of the terms within both the integral and differential form of the first law
• Identify when the open and closed forms of the first law are applicable
• Determine when each term in the first law is zero or negligible
• Establish whether the ideal gas law is appropriate or if more advanced approaches are necessary (including tabulated data) [Ch 1.8]
• Identify, formulate, and solve simple engineering problems (such as expansion/compression in piston-cylinder systems and power cycles) [Ch 2.7-2.9]
• Describe the molecular basis for internal energy, heat transfer, work, and heat capacity [Ch 2.1-2.2]
• Explain the difference between a reversible and irreversible process [Ch 2.3]
• Distinguish between reversible and irreversible processes [Ch 2.3]
• Explain the utility of enthalpy, flow work, and shaft work [Ch 2.5]
• Calculate enthalpy changes associated with sensible heat, latent heat, and chemical reaction [Ch 2.6]

### Entropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics

• Explain and manipulate the second law [Ch 3.3-3.6]
• State and illustrate by example the second law of thermodynamics
• Write both the integral and differential forms of the second law
• Identify when the open and closed forms of the second law are applicable
• Determine when each term in the second law is zero or negligible
• Identify, formulate, and solve simple engineering problems (such as expansion/compression and power cycles) [Ch 3.5-3.9]
• Derive and use the mechanical energy balance equation to solve engineering problems [Ch 3.8]
• Devise and use strategies for entropy change calculations
• Develop hypothetical reversibile paths between two states in order to calculate entropy changes [Ch 3.1-3.2]
• Use the heat capacity to calculate entropy changes
• Use tables to calculate entropy changes
• Calculate entropy changes for materials undergoing phase changes and/or reaction
• Perform power cycle problems [Ch 3.9]
• Solve for the net power obtained and efficiency of reversible power cycles
• Calculate the coefficient of performance of a reversible refrigeration cycle
• Correct reversible calculations for real systems using isentropic efficiencies

### Equations of State

• From molecular considerations, identify which intermolecular interactions are significant (including estimating relative strengths of dipole moments, polarizability, etc.)
• Apply simple rules for calculating P, v, or T
• Calculate P, v, or T from non-ideal equations of state (cubic equations, the virial equation, compressibility charts, and ThermoSolver)
• Apply the Rackett equation, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the isothermal compressibility to find v for liquids and solids
• State the molecular components that contribute to internal energy
• Relate macroscopic thermodynamic properties/behaviors with their molecular origins, including point charges, dipoles, induced dipoles, dispersion interactions, repulsive forces, and chemical effects
• Define van der Waals forces and relate it to the dipole moment and polarizability of a molecule
• Define a potential function
• Write equations for ideal gas, hard sphere, Sutherland, and Lennard-Jones potentials and relate them to intermolecular interactions
• Explain the origin of an use "complex" equations of state
• State the molecular assumptions of the ideal gas law
• Explain how the terms in the van der Waals equation relax these assumptions
• Describe how cubic equations of state account for attractive and repulsive interactions
• State and use the principal of corresponding states to develop expressions for the critical property data of a species
• Describe the purpose of the acentric factor and its role in the construction of compressibility charts
• Adapt our approach to mixtures [Ch 4.5]
• Write the van der Waals mixing rules and explain their functionality in terms of molecular interactions
• Write the mixing rules for the virial coefficients and for pseudo-critical properties using Kay's rule
• Using mixing rules to solve for P, v, and T of mixtures
• Write the exact differential of one property in terms of two other properties [Ch 5.1, 5.2]
• Use departure functions to calculate property data for real fluids (and use them to solve engineering problems) [Ch 5.4]
• Calculate departure functions from Lee-Kesler charts
• Use equations of state to calculate departure functions

### Phase Equilibrium: Conditions for Equilibrium

• Write down the conditions for equilibrium for: a pure single phase system, a pure multi-phase system, and a multi-phase mixture [Ch 6.1, 6.2]
• Explain how energetic and entropic effects balance at equilibrium [Ch 6.2]
• Use the Clapeyron equation and/or the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to relate T and P for pure species phase equilibrium [Ch 6.2]
• Use the Antoine equation to relate T and P for pure species phase equilibrium [Ch 6.2]
• Explain the relationship between the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the Antoine equation [Ch 6.2]
• Write exact differentials for extensive properties in terms of m+2 independent variables for mixtures of m species [Ch 6.3]
• Define and explain the difference between the terms: pure species property, total solution property, and partial molar property [Ch 6.3]
• Calculate total solution properties from partial molar properties [Ch 6.3]
• Calculate partial molar properties [Ch 6.3]
• using graphical methods
• using equations of state
• using the Gibbs-Duhem equation
• Explain the origin of enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes due to mixing [Ch 6.3]
• Calculate the enthalpy of solution from the enthalpy of mixing and vice versa [Ch 6.3]
• Explain why the chemical potential is the relevant property for determining solution equilibrium [Ch 6.4]

### Phase Equilibrium: Fugacity and Equilibrium Calculations

• Relate the fugacity and the chemical potential (or the partial molar Gibbs free energy) [Ch 7.1, 7.2]
• Use the fugacity coefficient to calculate the vapor phase fugacity [Ch 7.3]
• Use the activity coefficient to calculate the liquid (or solid) phase fugacity [Ch 7.4]
• Identify conditions when a liquid or solid mixture would form an ideal solution [Ch 7.4]
• Explain when Lewis-Randall versus Henry ideal solution reference states are appropriate [Ch 7.4]
• Use the Gibbs-Duhem equation to relate activity coefficients in a mixture [Ch 7.4]
• Perform bubble-point and dew point calculations [Ch 8.1]
• using Raoult's Law
• using complete fugacity relations (assuming known fugacity coefficients and activity coefficients)
• Draw and read Txy and Pxy diagrams for VLE [Ch 8.1]
• Use Henry's Law to calculate VLE for gases dissolved in liquids [Ch 8.1]

### Chemical Reaction Equilibrium

• Explain the relationship between energy and entropy in reacting systems (i.e., show why the Gibbs Free Energy is still the proper state function for equilibrium) [Ch 9.2]
• Write balance chemical reaction expressions with associate reaction stoichiometry [Ch 9.3]
• Relate extent of reaction expressions to the equilibrium constant(s) [Ch 9.3]
• Use thermochemical data to calculate the equilibrium constant and its dependence on temperature [Ch 9.4]
• Determine the equilibrium composition for a single-phase, single-reaction system (i.e., calculate the extent of reaction) [Ch 9.5]
• in vapor phase reactions
• in liquid phase reactions
• Determine the equilibrium composition for a multiphase, single-reaction system [Ch 9.5]