Thermodynamic Properties
 Define and articulate some of the critical language and
concepts of Thermodynamics

 Distinguish between the universe, system, surroundings, and
boundary [Ch 1.11.2]
 Define open system, closed system, and isolated system [Ch
1.11.2]
 Define adiabatic, isothermal, isobaric, and isochoric processes
[Ch 1.11.2]
 Distinguish between extensive and intensive thermodynamic
properties [Ch 1.3]
 Explain the difference between state and path variables [Ch
1.5]
 Distinguish between equilibrium and steady state [Ch 1.4]
 Define the term phase and explain what it means for phases to
be in equilibrium [Ch 1.4]
 Relate properties to phase behavior [Ch 1.61.8]

 Relate the measured thermodynamic properties of temperature and
pressure to molecular behavior
 Describe phase and chemical reaction equilibrium in terms of
dynamic molecular processes
 Apply the state postulate and the Gibbs phase rule to determine
the number of required independent properties needed to constrain
the state of a system (pure species)
 Identify the phases present on a PT and/or Pv diagram as well
as the critical point and triple point
 Describe the difference between the saturation and vapor
pressures
 Determine thermodynamic properties using both calculations and
tabulated data [Ch 1.61.7]

 Read desired thermodynamic properties from steam tables
 Using linear, sometimes double, interpolation to calculate
property values from sparse tabular data
 Use equations of state to calculate unknown properties from
measured properties
The First Law of Thermodynamics
 Explain and manipulate the first law [Ch 2.4]

 Write the integral and differential forms of the first law
 Describe the physical meaning of each of the terms within both
the integral and differential form of the first law
 Identify when the open and closed forms of the first law are
applicable
 Determine when each term in the first law is zero or
negligible
 Establish whether the ideal gas law is appropriate or if more
advanced approaches are necessary (including tabulated data) [Ch
1.8]
 Identify, formulate, and solve simple engineering problems
(such as expansion/compression in pistoncylinder systems and power
cycles) [Ch 2.72.9]
 Describe the molecular basis for internal energy, heat
transfer, work, and heat capacity [Ch 2.12.2]
 Explain the difference between a reversible and irreversible
process [Ch 2.3]
 Distinguish between reversible and irreversible processes [Ch
2.3]
 Explain the utility of enthalpy, flow work, and shaft work [Ch
2.5]
 Calculate enthalpy changes associated with sensible heat,
latent heat, and chemical reaction [Ch 2.6]
Entropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics
 Explain and manipulate the second law [Ch 3.33.6]

 State and illustrate by example the second law of
thermodynamics
 Write both the integral and differential forms of the second
law
 Identify when the open and closed forms of the second law are
applicable
 Determine when each term in the second law is zero or
negligible
 Identify, formulate, and solve simple engineering problems
(such as expansion/compression and power cycles) [Ch 3.53.9]
 Derive and use the mechanical energy balance equation to solve
engineering problems [Ch 3.8]
 Devise and use strategies for entropy change calculations

 Develop hypothetical reversibile paths between two states in
order to calculate entropy changes [Ch 3.13.2]
 Use the heat capacity to calculate entropy changes
 Use tables to calculate entropy changes
 Calculate entropy changes for materials undergoing phase
changes and/or reaction
 Perform power cycle problems [Ch 3.9]

 Solve for the net power obtained and efficiency of reversible
power cycles
 Calculate the coefficient of performance of a reversible
refrigeration cycle
 Correct reversible calculations for real systems using
isentropic efficiencies
Equations of State
 From molecular considerations, identify which intermolecular
interactions are significant (including estimating relative
strengths of dipole moments, polarizability, etc.)
 Apply simple rules for calculating P, v, or T

 Calculate P, v, or T from nonideal equations of state (cubic
equations, the virial equation, compressibility charts, and
ThermoSolver)
 Apply the Rackett equation, the thermal expansion coefficient,
and the isothermal compressibility to find v for liquids and
solids
 State the molecular components that contribute to internal
energy
 Relate macroscopic thermodynamic properties/behaviors with
their molecular origins, including point charges, dipoles, induced
dipoles, dispersion interactions, repulsive forces, and chemical
effects
 Define van der Waals forces and relate it to the dipole moment
and polarizability of a molecule
 Define a potential function
 Write equations for ideal gas, hard sphere, Sutherland, and
LennardJones potentials and relate them to intermolecular
interactions
 Explain the origin of an use "complex" equations of state

 State the molecular assumptions of the ideal gas law
 Explain how the terms in the van der Waals equation relax these
assumptions
 Describe how cubic equations of state account for attractive
and repulsive interactions
 State and use the principal of corresponding states to develop
expressions for the critical property data of a species
 Describe the purpose of the acentric factor and its role in the
construction of compressibility charts
 Adapt our approach to mixtures [Ch 4.5]

 Write the van der Waals mixing rules and explain their
functionality in terms of molecular interactions
 Write the mixing rules for the virial coefficients and for
pseudocritical properties using Kay's rule
 Using mixing rules to solve for P, v, and T of mixtures
 Write the exact differential of one property in terms of two
other properties [Ch 5.1, 5.2]
 Use departure functions to calculate property data for real
fluids (and use them to solve engineering problems) [Ch 5.4]

 Calculate departure functions from LeeKesler charts
 Use equations of state to calculate departure functions
Phase Equilibrium: Conditions for Equilibrium
 Write down the conditions for equilibrium for: a pure single
phase system, a pure multiphase system, and a multiphase mixture
[Ch 6.1, 6.2]
 Explain how energetic and entropic effects balance at
equilibrium [Ch 6.2]
 Use the Clapeyron equation and/or the ClausiusClapeyron
equation to relate T and P for pure species phase equilibrium [Ch
6.2]
 Use the Antoine equation to relate T and P for pure species
phase equilibrium [Ch 6.2]
 Explain the relationship between the ClausiusClapeyron
equation and the Antoine equation [Ch 6.2]
 Write exact differentials for extensive properties in terms of
m+2 independent variables for mixtures of m species [Ch 6.3]
 Define and explain the difference between the terms: pure
species property, total solution property, and partial molar
property [Ch 6.3]
 Calculate total solution properties from partial molar
properties [Ch 6.3]
 Calculate partial molar properties [Ch 6.3]

 using graphical methods
 using equations of state
 using the GibbsDuhem equation
 Explain the origin of enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes due
to mixing [Ch 6.3]
 Calculate the enthalpy of solution from the enthalpy of mixing
and vice versa [Ch 6.3]
 Explain why the chemical potential is the relevant property for
determining solution equilibrium [Ch 6.4]
Phase Equilibrium: Fugacity and Equilibrium Calculations
 Relate the fugacity and the chemical potential (or the partial
molar Gibbs free energy) [Ch 7.1, 7.2]
 Use the fugacity coefficient to calculate the vapor phase
fugacity [Ch 7.3]
 Use the activity coefficient to calculate the liquid (or solid)
phase fugacity [Ch 7.4]
 Identify conditions when a liquid or solid mixture would form
an ideal solution [Ch 7.4]
 Explain when LewisRandall versus Henry ideal solution
reference states are appropriate [Ch 7.4]
 Use the GibbsDuhem equation to relate activity coefficients in
a mixture [Ch 7.4]
 Perform bubblepoint and dew point calculations [Ch 8.1]

 using Raoult's Law
 using complete fugacity relations (assuming known fugacity
coefficients and activity coefficients)
 Draw and read Txy and Pxy diagrams for VLE [Ch 8.1]
 Use Henry's Law to calculate VLE for gases dissolved in
liquids [Ch 8.1]
Chemical Reaction Equilibrium
 Explain the relationship between energy and entropy in reacting
systems (i.e., show why the Gibbs Free Energy is still the proper
state function for equilibrium) [Ch 9.2]
 Write balance chemical reaction expressions with associate
reaction stoichiometry [Ch 9.3]
 Relate extent of reaction expressions to the equilibrium
constant(s) [Ch 9.3]
 Use thermochemical data to calculate the equilibrium constant
and its dependence on temperature [Ch 9.4]
 Determine the equilibrium composition for a singlephase,
singlereaction system (i.e., calculate the extent of reaction) [Ch
9.5]

 in vapor phase reactions
 in liquid phase reactions
 Determine the equilibrium composition for a multiphase,
singlereaction system [Ch 9.5]