# FL: Engineering equipment

### Engineering equipment

##### Definition:

A nozzle/diffuser is a device that converts between kinetic energy and internal energy. This is accomplished by having a change in the cross-sectional area. (Nozzles decreases $A_{cs}$ so that $U \rightarrow E_k$. A diffuser increases $A_{cs}$ so that $E_k \rightarrow U$).

##### Definition:

A turbine/pump uses a shaft to either extract/input work from/into a system.

##### Definition:

A heat exchanger is a device that changes the internal energy of a fluid by inputting/removing heat.

##### Definition:

A throttle is a device that decreases the pressure of a fluid by restricting the flow (typically with an inclusion of some sort).

##### Outcome:

Identify, formulate, and solve simple engineering problems (such as expansion/compression and power cycles)

##### Test:

Simplify the appropriate version of the first law for each of these devices.